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(Software Testing Interview Questions and Answers )
- Q1. What is the KEY difference between preventative and reactive approaches to testing?
Preventative tests are designed early; reactive tests are designed after the software has been produced.
- Q2. What is the purpose of exit criteria?
To define when a test level is complete.
- Q3. What determines the level of risk?
The likelihood of an adverse event and the impact of the event
- Q4. When is used Decision table testing?
Decision table testing is used for testing systems for which the specification takes the form of rules or cause-effect combinations. In a decision table the inputs are listed in a column, with the outputs in the same column but below the inputs. The remainder of the table explores combinations of inputs to define the outputs produced.
- Q5. What is the MAIN objective when reviewing a software deliverable?
To identify defects in any software work product.
- Q6. Which of the following defines the expected results of a test? Test case specification or test design specification.
Test case specification.
- Q7. Which is a benefit of test independence?
It avoids author bias in defining effective tests. As part of which test process do you determine the exit criteria? Test planning.
- Q8. What is beta testing?
Testing performed by potential customers at their own locations.
- Q9. Given the following fragment of code, how many tests are required for 100% decision coverage?
if width > length then biggest_dimension = width if height > width then biggest_dimension = height end_if else biggest_dimension = length if height > length then biggest_dimension = height end_if end_if
- Q10. You have designed test cases to provide 100% statement and 100% decision coverage for the following fragment of code. if width > length then biggest_dimension = width else biggest_dimension = length end_if The following has been added to the bottom of the code fragment above. print "Biggest dimension is " & biggest_dimension print "Width: " & width print "Length: " & length How many more test cases are required?
None, existing test cases can be used.
- Q11. Rapid Application Development ?
Rapid Application Development (RAD) is formally a parallel development of functions and subsequent integration. Components/functions are developed in parallel as if they were mini projects, the developments are time-boxed, delivered, and then assembled into a working prototype. This can very quickly give the customer something to see and use and to provide feedback regarding the delivery and their requirements. Rapid change and development of the product is possible using this methodology. However the product specification will need to be developed for the product at some point, and the project will need to be placed under more formal controls prior to going into production.
- Q12. What is the difference between Testing Techniques and Testing Tools?
Testing technique: – Is a process for ensuring that some aspects of the application system or unit functions properly there may be few techniques but many tools. Testing Tools: – Is a vehicle for performing a test process. The tool is a resource to the tester, but itself is insufficient to conduct testing
- Q13. We use the output of the requirement analysis, the requirement specification as the input for writing …
User Acceptance Test Cases
- Q14. Repeated Testing of an already tested program, after modification, to discover any defects introduced or uncovered as a result of the changes in the software being tested or in another related or unrelated software component:
- Q15. What is component testing ?
Component testing, also known as unit, module and program testing, searches for defects in, and verifies the functioning of software (e.g. modules, programs, objects, classes, etc.) that are separately testable. Component testing may be done in isolation from the rest of the system depend-ing on the context of the development life cycle and the system. Most often stubs and drivers are used to replace the missing software and simulate the interface between the software components in a simple manner. A stub is called from the software component to be tested; a driver calls a component to be tested.
- Q16. What is functional system testing ?
Testing the end to end functionality of the system as a whole.
- Q17. What is the benefits of Independent Testing
Independent testers see other and different defects and are unbiased.
- Q18. In a REACTIVE approach to testing when would you expect the bulk of the test design work to be begun?
After the software or system has been produced.
- Q19. What are the different Methodologies in Agile Development Model?
There are currently seven different Agile methodologies that I am aware of: Extreme Programming (XP) Scrum Lean Software Development Feature-Driven Development Agile Unified Process Crystal Dynamic Systems Development Model (DSDM)
- Q20. Which activity in the fundamental test process includes evaluation of the testability of the requirements and system?
A Test analysis and design.
- Q21. What is typically the MOST important reason to use risk to drive testing efforts?
Because testing everything is not feasible.
- Q22. Which is the MOST important advantage of independence in testing?
An independent tester may be more effective at finding defects missed by the person who wrote the software.
- Q23. Which of the following are valid objectives for incident reports? i. Provide developers and other parties with feedback about the problem to enable identification, isolation and correction as necessary. ii. Provide ideas for test process improvement. iii. Provide a vehicle for assessing tester competence. iv. Provide testers with a means of tracking the quality of the system under test.
i. Provide developers and other parties with feedback about the problem to enable identification, isolation and correction as necessary, ii.Provide ideas for test process improvement, iv.Provide testers with a means of tracking the quality of the system under test
- Q24. Consider the following techniques. Which are static and which are dynamic techniques? i. Equivalence Partitioning. ii. Use Case Testing. iii.Data Flow Analysis. iv.Exploratory Testing. v. Decision Testing. vi. Inspections.
Data Flow Analysis and Inspections are static, Equivalence Partitioning, Use Case Testing, Exploratory Testing and Decision Testing are dynamic.
- Q25. Why are static testing and dynamic testing described as complementary?
Because they share the aim of identifying defects but differ in the types of defect they find.
- Q26. What are the phases of a formal review ?
In contrast to informal reviews, formal reviews follow a formal process. A typical formal review process consists of six main steps: Planning Kick-off Preparation Review meeting Rework Follow-up.
- Q27. What is the role of moderator in review process?
The moderator (or review leader) leads the review process. He or she deter-mines, in co-operation with the author, the type of review, approach and the composition of the review team. The moderator performs the entry check and the follow-up on the rework, in order to control the quality of the input and output of the review process. The moderator also schedules the meeting, disseminates documents before the meeting, coaches other team members, paces the meeting, leads possible discussions and stores the data that is collected.
- Q28. What is an equivalence partition (also known as an equivalence class)?
An input or output range of values such that only one value in the range becomes a test case.
- Q29. When should configuration management procedures be implemented?
During test planning.
- Q30. A Type of functional Testing, which investigates the functions relating to detection of threats, such as virus from malicious outsiders.
- Q31. Testing where in we subject the target of the test , to varying workloads to measure and evaluate the performance behaviors and ability of the target and of the test to continue to function properly under these different workloads.
- Q32. Testing activity which is performed to expose defects in the interfaces and in the interaction between integrated components is:
Integration Level Testing
- Q33. What are the Structure-based (white-box) testing techniques ?
TStructure-based testing techniques (which are also dynamic rather than static) use the internal structure of the software to derive test cases. They are com-monly called white-box or glass-box techniques (implying you can see into the system) since they require knowledge of how the software is implemented, that is, how it works. For example, a structural technique may be concerned with exercising loops in the software. Different test cases may be derived to exercise the loop once, twice, and many times. This may be done regardless of the func-tionality of the software.
- Q34. When should be performed Regression testing ?
After the software has changed or when the environment has changed
- Q35. When should testing be stopped?
It depends on the risks for the system being tested
- Q36. What is the purpose of a test completion criterion?
To determine when to stop testing
- Q37. What can static analysis NOT find?
For example memory leaks
- Q38. What is the difference between re-testing and regression testing?
Re-testing ensures the original fault has been removed; regression testing looks for unexpected sideeffects
- Q39. What are the Experience-based testing techniques ?
In experience-based techniques, peoples knowledge, skills and background are a prime contributor to the test conditions and test cases. The experience of both technical and business people is important, as they bring different perspectives to the test analysis and design process. Due to previous experience with similar systems, they may have insights into what could go wrong, which is very useful for testing.
- Q40. What type of review requires formal entry and exit criteria, including metrics?
- Q41. Could reviews or inspections be considered part of testing?
Yes, because both help detect faults and improve quality
- Q42. An input field takes the year of birth between 1900 and 2004 What are the boundary values for testing this field ?
- Q43. Which of the following tools would be involved in the automation of regression test? a. Data tester b. Boundary tester c. Capture/Playback d. Output comparator.
- Q44. To test a function,what has to write a programmer, which calls the function to be tested and passes it test data.
- Q45. What is the one Key reason why developers have difficulty testing their own work?
Lack of Objectivity
- Q46. "How much testing is enough?"
The answer depends on the risk for your industry, contract and special requirements.
- Q47. When should testing be stopped?
It depends on the risks for the system being tested.
- Q48. Which of the following is the main purpose of the integration strategy for integration testing in the small?
To specify which modules to combine when, and how many at once.
- Q49. What is the purpose of a test completion criterion?
To determine when to stop testing
- Q50. What is the difference between re-testing and regression testing?
Re-testing ensures the original fault has been removed; regression testing looks for unexpected side-effects
- Q51. Which review is normally used to evaluate a product to determine its suitability for intended use and to identify discrepancies?
- Q52. Why we use decision tables?.
The techniques of equivalence partitioning and boundary value analysis are often applied to specific situations or inputs. However, if different combinations of inputs result in different actions being taken, this can be more difficult to show using equivalence partitioning and boundary value analysis, which tend to be more focused on the user interface. The other two specification-based tech-niques, decision tables and state transition testing are more focused on business logic or business rules. A decision table is a good way to deal with combinations of things (e.g. inputs). This technique is sometimes also referred to as a cause-effect table. The reason for this is that there is an associated logic diagramming technique called cause-effect graphing which was sometimes used to help derive the decision table.